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8 mulole 2017

Kodi Network Time Protocol (NTP) ndi chiyani? | | Complete Guide

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Kodi Network Time Protocol (NTP)?Inde, ndi protocol protocol yogwiritsiridwa ntchito kusinthanitsa maola pakati pa ma kompyuta pokonza paketi. Zakhala zikuzungulira kuyambira pakati pa 1980s ndipo zidapangidwa ndi David Mills ku yunivesite ya Delaware; ndi imodzi mwa machitidwe abwino kwambiri omwe alipobe pa intaneti. NTP inawonjezera nthawi zina zosinthira zomwe zinalibe mphamvu zochepa kuti zisinthe nthawi powona malo kapena nthawi ya seva ponena za wopindula kapena kulumikizana ndi zochitika zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimapezeka pamtundu wotsalira.

NTP yakhala ikukumana ndi kusintha kwakukulu kuchokera pachiyambi chake pa zaka 30 zisanachitike. Kusintha kwa NTP 0 imadziwika mu RFC 958 mu September wa 1985. NTPv0 ikhoza kukwaniritsa nthawi yeniyeni mu millisecond angapo. Mu 1988, RFC 1059 yodziwika NTPv1, yomwe inayang'ana kukhazikitsa NTP kwa seva ya makasitomala ndi kugawana nawo. Mu 1989, RFC 1119 yodziwika NTPv2, yomwe imaphatikizapo zinthu monga protocol yolondolera ndi ndondomeko yotsimikiziridwa, yomwe ikugwiritsidwanso ntchito monga gawo la lero. RFC 1305, yomwe inapezeka mu 1992, yodziwika ndi NTPv3. NTPv3 imaphatikizapo zosavuta zina zomwe zafukulidwa ndi kuyesedwa, zomwe zimathandiza kasitomala kusankha pakati pa mapepala osiyanasiyana. Njira yolankhulirana inadziwikiranso ndi chithandizo chothandizira kutumizira nthawi pazambiri-kufika pa intaneti. Mu 2010, RFC 5905 inagawidwa ndi tsatanetsatane wa NTPv4 komabe idasinthidwa ndi RFC 7822 mu March wa 2016. NTPv4 ndi kusintha kwa NTP tsopano. Amakhala ndi zigawo zofanana za NTPv3 komabe zimaphatikizapo bolster kwa IPv6 ngati njira yovomerezeka ya pulogalamu. Kutsimikiziridwa kumapitanso patsogolo ndipo kumapereka ndondomeko yotetezeka kwambiri.

NTP imagwiritsa ntchito makonzedwe osiyanasiyana a nthawi. Gawo lirilonse la dongosolo likudziwika ngati stratum ndipo imatchulidwa chiwerengero choyambira kuyambira ndi zero (0). Pamene mumaphatikizapo nthawi, zowunikira ndikugwirizanitsa ndi chitsimikizo chapamwamba (kulepheretsani kuwerengedwa kwa chiwerengero), muwonjezere 1 ku malo ake olemekezeka. Titha kugwiritsira ntchito chiyamiko monga chiwerengero cha chikhulupiliro cha nthawi. Zero ndi odalirika kwambiri, ndipo 15 ndiyomweyi yokhazikika odalirika koma panthawi yomweyi ndi msinkhu wogwiritsidwa ntchito. Chida cha 16 sichidziwika bwino ndipo chimati ndi wopenga. Mzere wa 16 stratum gadget si nthawi yambiri yochokera. NTP imatumiza nthaŵi ku Coordinated Universal Time (mwinamwake yotchedwa Universal Time Coordinated kapena UTC). Kusintha kwa nthawi yoyandikana kuyenera kukhala kotheka pa seva yoyandikana nayo kapena pa galasi la makasitomala.

Kutumiza kwa NTP kwachindunji kwa nthawi yowonjezera ndi nthawi yoyambira kuchokera ku gwero lodalirika, mwachitsanzo, gwero la nthawi yowonetsera. Ku United States, National Institute of Standards ndi Technology nthawi zina maseva omwe tingathe kuwagwirizanitsa. Pa tf.nist.gov/tf-cgi/servers.cgi, mutha kupeza ma seva a nthawi yambiri, malo awo ndi malo a IP kuti muwonetse seva ya nthawi. Mukasankha nthawi kumalo osungirako malo komanso malo owonjezereka, mukhoza kugwiritsa ntchito monga chitsimikizo cha nthawi mkati mwazomwe mukufuna. Kusintha ndi kusintha (Cisco ndi ena) amatha kutenga nthawi kuchokera ku seva yanu yoyandikana nayo, ndipo pambuyo pake akhoza kusunthira kukhala malo omwe amachokera kuzipangizo zam'tsogolo zomwe zidadutsa. Machitidwe akuluakulu ogwira ntchito adzakhazikitsa NTP kuphatikizapo Windows. Mawindo onse kuyambira Windows 2000 akhala ndi Windows Time Service (W32Time) kuti agwirizane nthawi pogwiritsa ntchito NTP.

Mu makonde a lero, nthawi ingagwirizanitsidwe mkati mwa mamilliseconds kapena mamiliyoni ambiri, koma bwanji? Izo zimadalira! Zimadalira pazogwiritsiridwa ntchito komanso zofunikira pa nthawi. Zingakhale kuti kukhala ndi "ola labwino" kungakhale kokwanira kudziwa pamene imelo inapangidwanso ndikuwonjezeranso. Nthawi yotsatila pa zikuluzikulu zofunikira zomwe zili mkati mwa 10s za millisecond zingakhale zokwanira. Mapulogalamuwa angakhale nthawi yowonjezera yowonjezera. Kuchokera pamalingaliro ofufuzira, kukhala ndi sitimayi mkati mkati mwa milliseconds kungathandize kusankha zosankha mkati mwa intaneti. Ganizirani ntchito zofunikira zogwiritsa ntchito. Kukhala ndi nthawi yochuluka yokhala ndi nthawi yodalirika yosamalira akaunti kapena zina zapakati zandale ndizofunikira zosakayikira. Chimodzi mwa mapulogalamu akuluakulu ogwiritsira ntchito NTP chinali kwa akuluakulu apalasita, ndipo monga kasitomala wokhazikika, ndikusangalala kuona kuti katundu ndi zipangizo zowonetsera ndege zathu zathawa zimakhala zovuta mkati mwa milliseconds. Izi zimalola anthu omwe akutsatira ndege kuti aganizire mozama ngati malo a ndege ndi kuyandikira kwa ena.

NTP ndi protocol yomwe yakhala ikuzungulira zaka zoposa 30 ndipo ikukwaniritsabe zosowa. Zakhala ngati zachilendo kukhala ndi ma clocks, ndipo timadalira nthawi. Ndi NTP lero, tikhoza kupeza zambiri kuposa nthawi yeniyeni yeniyeni ndikufika molunjika pa mlingo wa millisecond. Pomwe paliponse kuti mukufuna zina zowonjezereka kuposa izi, yang'anani ku Precision Time Protocol (PTP) ... komatu izi ndizolemba.

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