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21 Feb 2017

Nhanho nhanho mirayiridzo yekusvika maDhivi mune dzimwe nzvimbo neGP Route Redistribution

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Nguva nenguva pane chido chekushandisa zvinopfuura imwe nzira yekutenderera uye ine nzvimbo inopfuura imwe yekufamba: multivendor maduka, kudzokera kunotangira imwe protocol ipapo kuenda kune inotevera, nyaya dzakasiyana-siyana dzezverariti protocol, zvezvematongerwo enyika kana munhu, kuumbwa nekuenzanisa maitiro, kubatana, uye kuwanikwa.

Nzira Yokusvika Sei Mazviridzwa Mune Zvimwe Nzvimbo neGP Route Redistribution

Kudzorerwa ndiyo nzira yekuenda kune imwe nzira yekutenderera kubva kune imwe nzira yekugadzirisa purogiramu ipapo kusvika kune inotevera kuva nekugadzirisa kwezvigadzirwa zvinogara munzvimbo dzakasiyana-siyana. Purogiramu yega yega inogadzirisa iyo ichapa imwe yemhando yedata mumatafura ekugadzirisa mukati maro, asi panogona kuva nechido kana kudikanwa kuwana zvigadzirwa mune imwe nzvimbo. Kudzorerwa kunoitwa pamusana pemugwagwa mumwe chete wemugwagwa pakati penzira yekuendesa nzvimbo kana protocol kuenda panzvimbo inotarisirwa kana protocol.

Pane zvinhu zvitatu zvokusarudza kuti uwane zvekugadzirisa zvizere pakati pezvivako:

  • Nzira dzisina kukwana kubva pakushandura kwemiganhu. Iwe unogona kudarika chinokanganisa kubva kumushandisi unogunzva nzvimbo dzose dzinoshandiswa (kugadzirisa kushandura) kune ma routers izvo chete zvinotora chikamu mukati memunharaunda imwe (kushandura mukati). Izvozvo zvinogona kuvhara migwagwa isina kujeka kubva kunzvimbo ipi neipi iyo inotarisa dzomukati dzisinganzwisisi uye dzinofamba dzomukati dzomukati kuenda kumuganhu wekugadzirisa, iyo inenge iine tafura yekugadzirisa zvachose sezvo inogona kutora chikamu munzvimbo dzose dzinoenda. Iyi nzira inoshanda zvakanakisisa kana pane chinangwa chimwechete chekubatana pakati penharaunda.
  • Nzira-imwe nzira yekuparadzanisa, nechinangwa. Pachine imwe magiraji emiganhu vanopfuura nzira isina kukwana mune imwe nzvimbo, asizve kudzosera kune imwe nzvimbo. Kazhinji, iwe unogona kutsvaga purotiti yepakati kuti udzokere zvakare uye dzimwe shanduro dzinozoita kuti zvisizvo zvisati zvaitika zvingatorwa gander pamitemo yepamusoro. Imwe nzira nzira yekudzikinura inoshandiswa kuwedzera kusvika kune dzakawanda zvemigwagwa, somuenzaniso, mune imwe sangano rakasiyana-siyana. Pakati peprototi inogona kunge iri BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) uye inopera protocol (s) inogona kuva chero yeGP (Interior Gateway Protocol, somuenzaniso, OSPF, EIGRP, RIP kana IS-IS, kana zvimwe zviitiko zvakasiyana-siyana zveGP imwecheteyo. inoshanda nenzira inonakidza nekutenga uye kubatana, sezvo "itsva" imwe chikamu chesangano haifaniri kushanda chisinganzwisisiki nzira yekutsanangurira kubva kune imwe dzose, kana kuti inoda kuchinja kwenguva iyo. Inongowedzera kushamwaridzana nekati.
  • Nzira mbiri kana kugoverana kwekugoverwa kunopfuudza zvishomanana kana ruzhinji rwekutsvaga dhidhiro yeimwe protocol mune imwe. Iyi ndiyo nzira yakaoma kwazvo, kunyanya kana kune chinopfuura chinangwa chimwe chekubatana pakati penharaunda. Iyo inofanira kushandiswa kana pane zvinangwa zvinofanirwa kuwanikeka zvichibva kune imwe nzvimbo ipapo kusvika kune inotevera. Izvo zvingaita, nzira imwechete inofanirwa kuve yakabatana kuratidza kuti kufamba kunopfuurira sei zvinangwa izvi kana kuti basa iri rinofanira kutarisirwa sei maererano nekuchengetedza nzira. Kugara kunetseka nekutarisa kwemaviri-nzira yekugadzirisa matambo, kusaenzanisa uye kushandura nzira.
    • Asymmetric routing ndiyo nzvimbo iyo nzira yekuendesa isiri yakangofanana neyo kusvika. Nyaya dzinogona kubuda kana pane chirongwa chekuchengetedza chinangwa chekuti basa rinotumirwa sei kana kana kune urongwa hwekudzivirira moto. Batambi vatsva vanogonawo kuvhiringidzwa nekutengesa zvisinganzwisisiki. Batambi vatsva, izvo zvakakosha mutoro kune mamwe magadheni maererano nekero yakafanana, vanotarisira kuti kutumira nekudzoka migwagwa inofanirwa kuitika.
    • Zvichienderana nekufamba ndiyo nzvimbo iyo inofanirwa nzira yakawanda mukutumira tafura hakusi nenzira ipi zvayo yakanyatsojeka. Izvi zvinoitika kana muganhu wekutsvaga "unoteerera" nezvemigwagwa kubva pakutangira prototi uye zvakarezve kuburikidza nedzimwe nzira ye protocol seyekunze. Pachinzvimbo chiripo kuti kuparadzanisa kwekutonga kwekunze kweprotocol protocol kunowedzera kuvimba kupfuura kutanga kweprototi, shanduko inotenderera kune imwe kunze yepamusoro pamusoro pekambani yeko. Nharaunda ndeyokutonga kuparadzaniswa kwepamutemo kwemigwagwa iri kutaurwa. Iyi haisi iyo yakananga-yakanyatsogadzirisa uye inopesana kubva padanho kusvika padanho, kunyange mukati memugove wega mutengesi wekutengesa.
    • Routing loops, kana kuti chinonzi loop, chinogona kuitika apo dhigirii deta inoparidzirwa mune imwe protocol pane chimwe chinangwa chekubatanidza uye pashure pekugadziriswa zvakare zvakare mukutanga protocol pane imwe chinangwa chokukurukura. Nechinangwa chekupedzisira chekugadzirisa nzira yekugadzirisa, iwe unofanirwa kuita mhinduro yekushandisa. Nzira yacho inoramba nzira dzotanga muchinangwa chekutsvaga kubva pakusimudzirwa zvakare zvakare muprototi iyoyo. Iwe unofanirwa kugadzira chiteshi chacho. Somuenzaniso, pane mukana wokuti une OSPF uye EIGRP nzvimbo dzakabatanidzwa zvingasarudzwa zviviri, iwe ungagadzira imwe chiteshi mumigwagwa yese yeOSPF uye ugovaendesa pakudzokorora kubva EIGRP kuOSPF. Imwe nzira inogona kushandiswa kumigwagwa yese yeEIGRP, kuifukisa pamusoro pekuparidzirwa kubva kuOSPF kusvika kuEIGRP. Ichi kuparadzanisa kunofanira kuitwa pamiganhu yose yemiganhu pakati pemitemo miviri inogona kushandiswa. Iwe unokwanisa kurongedza pa prefixes kana iwe unogona kushandisa mabhii, izvo zvandinoda. Mavara acho anogona kudonhedzwa sechikamu chekuenda kunezve kugoverazve migwagwa mukati mechirongwa chekutsvaga, ipapo iwe unogona kutsvaga mavara ekuisa chiteshi pa. Iwe unofanirwa kuita sarudzo inotanga kutsvaga mavara uye inoramba ivo uye pangozi yekuti haisipo, uye inonyora nzira kuti dzione iyo protocol protocol. Izvi zvakazadzirwa pakubereka, saka mapurisa maviri aifanira kudiwa. Zvose zvinowanzogadzirisa zvirongwa, kusanganisira RIPv2, zvinogona kusimbisa mavara.

Tinofanirwa kutora gander kuGP rekudzidzira kugovera paCisco magadget. Apo kugoverwa patsva kubva kune imwe prototi kuenda mune imwe, kune zvinhu zvishoma zvekuyeuka:

  • Iyo nzira yekudzikinura inokonzera kubva patafura yekugadzirisa, kwete nheyo dzedigwaro. Pamusana pekuda kuti iwe uchadzokorora RIP zvakare kuOSPF, zvino nzira yacho inotsvaga iyo nzira dzinonzi RIP mumutambo wekushandisa. Pane imwe nyaya yakakosha: miitiro inobatanidza iyo iyo protocol inoshandiswa.
  • PaCisco routers yePv4, migwagwa inobatanidza ichadzoka zvakare. Izvi zvinobvira urefu hwenyu hauna kugoverana zvakare kana ichibatanidzwa mune imwechete chinangwa protocol, iyo inogona kuita kuti chinhu chiramire.
  • Pamusoro paCisco routers yePv6, nzira yekudzikinura haina kuisazve migwagwa inobatanidza iyo iyo protocol iri kushanda, kunze kwekuti iwe unosanganisira iyo inosanganiswa inoshandiswa iyo redistribution line.

Zvimwe Cisco OS inoda urongwa hwakabatana nemirairo yekuregeredza yemigwagwa inofanira kupedzisira yatanga neimwe protocol ipapo kuenda kune inotevera. Apo kugoverana patsva mune protocol, iwe unoda kugovera metrico yemigwagwa kuitira kuti ivo vari musangano rakarurama maererano nechinangwa cheprotocol. Itaundi yeprototi imwe chete haisi kutsvaga kugadzirisa kune imwe. Ikoko kune mbeu yematric inofanirwa kuiswa kune dzimwe nzira dzomukati dzinoenda kune chinangwa protocol. Tafura muChifananidzo 1 inoratidzira purogiramu yese ine zvimwe zvishoma.

mabviromuRIPkuEIGRPmuOSPFkuva IS-ISmuBGP (MED)
Akabatanidzwa1Interface metric20 (E2)00
kunofambira mberi1Interface metric20 (E2)00
RIPhaaperi20 (E2)0IGP metric
EIGRPhaaperiZvimwe zvinoshandiswa metric20 (E2)0IGP metric
OSPFhaaperihaaperi0IGP metric
IS-IShaaperihaaperi20 (E2)IGP metric
BGPhaaperihaaperi1 (E2)0

Mufananidzo 1: Zvitemo Zvimwe

Pachine mikana yokuti mbeu yemetric isingagumi, iyo ndiyo nzira isingashandisi. Iwe unofanirwa kugovera mbeu yemetric kana uchipazve iyo protocol inowanikwa mune chinangwa kana pamutsetse we redistribution kana kuburikidza nemirairo yemitemo isiri pasi pechirevo chetsika routing protocol. Mbeu yemetric iri mune urongwa hweyo chinangwa protocol: kusvetwa kweRIP, mari ye OSPF uye IS-IS, uye inoumba mitemo yeEIGRP (kudhinda kudhinda kwedhiyabhorosi, kuchetera, unhu hunotyisa, mutoro uye MTU).

Imwe pfungwa yekupedzisira-kana iyo inonzi BGP, ipapo kungova kunze kweMigwagwa yeGG kuchazoiswazve muGPI. Ichi ndicho chinhu chinoshandiswa kushandiswa kwechiito chekuita. Muchiitiko chekuti iwe unofanira kudzosera mukati maBGP migwagwa, zvino uronga pasi peBGP nzira (kwete iyo chinangwa protocol) bgp kugoverazve mukati-murairo.

Pakati pemitsara iyi, kana iwe uchimhanya kupfuura imwe nzira yekutsvaga uye iwe unoda kuzadza kana kusakwana, unoda kugoverana pakati pezvinyorwa izvi. Pane zvinhu zviviri zvekufungisisa uye kugadzirira pamberi usati watanga kuronga. Kudzorerwa kunogona kunge kwakasiyana-siyana (imwe seti yemitemo, chinangwa chimwe chekubatana) uye chinogona kunge chisingazivikanwi zvikuru.

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