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8 Chivabvu 2017

Chii chinonzi Network Time Protocol (NTP)? | A Complete Guide

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Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Chii Network Time Protocol (NTP)?Zvechokwadi, iyo protocol yenethiwekhi inoshandiswa kuwirirana maawa pakati pekombiyuta maitiro pamusoro pepakiti switch network. Zvave zviripo kubva pakati pe-1980 uye zvakasikwa naDavid Mills paYunivhesiti yeDelaware; iyo ndeimwe yemitemo yakarongeka yakave yakapoteredza paInternet. NTP yakatsigira dzimwe nguva kuenzaniswa kwezvinhu zvisingashandisi mashomanana ekugadzirisa nguva pakuona nzvimbo yenguva iyo nguva kana server nguva nechokuremekedza kune waibhadharwa kana kubvumirana kune zvakasiyana-siyana zvekutsvaga kunowanikwa pakushanda kwemagetsi mashoko emagetsi.

NTP yakambotarisana nekuchinja kwakasiyana-siyana kubvira pakatanga kushandiswa pamusoro pemakore ekutanga kweCNUMX. NTP kugadziriswa 0 yakaratidzwa muRFC 958 muna September we1985. NTPv0 inogona kupedza nguva yakakwana mumamiriyoni akawanda emillisecond. Mu 1988, RFC 1059 yakaitwa NTPv1, iyo yakarongeka kugadzirisa kwe NTP yevashandi server uye yakagoverwa maitiro. Muna 1989, RFC 1119 yakaitwa NTPv2, iyo yaisanganisira zvinhu zvakadai sehutungamiri protocol uye chirongwa chekusimbisa, izvo zvichishandiswa sechikamu chezvimwe zvemazuva ano. RFC 1305, iyo yakabuda mu1992, yakaratidzwa NTPv3. NTPv3 inosanganisira kutsvaga mabhuku uye kuongorora, izvo zvinobatsira mutengi kuti asarudze pakati pemhando dzakasiyana-siyana. Kukurukurirana maitiro kwaivawo zvakajeka rubatsiro runoita kuti kutengesa kwemazuva ku-multi-get network. Muna 2010, RFC 5905 yakagoverwa nemashoko ezveNATPv4 asi yakavandudzwa neRFC 7822 muna March we2016. NTPv4 ndiyo ikozvino kuchinja kweTPP. Iyo inoramba iine huwandu hwakawanda hwezvimwe zvikamu zve NTPv3 zvisinei zvinosanganisira bhuster yePv6 seyo inokosha network protocol. Kuongorora kunowedzera kuvandudzwa uye kunopa protocol inonyanya kuve yakachengeteka.

NTP inoshandisa zvakasiyana-siyana zvakasimbiswa zvakasarudzwa zvemazuva emvura. Chimwe nechimwe chemufambiro wekufambira mberi inozivikanwa sechidimbu uye inodonhedzwa nhamba yakakosha kutanga ne zero (0). Sezvaunosanganisira nguva, zvinyorwa uye zvinowirirana kune imwe nzvimbo yakakwirira mu-stratum (nyora pasi mukuremekedzwa kwenhamba), unowedzera 1 kune yakarongwa. Isu tinogona kushandisa ruremekedzo ruremekedzo sehuwandu hwekutendwa kwenguva yakabva. Zero ndiyo yakatendeseka zvikuru, uye 15 ndiyo inonyanya kuvimbika asi panguva imwechete inoshandiswa. Chirongwa che16 hachizivikanwi uye chinonzi chine mapenzi. A level 16 stratum gadget haisi nguva yakawanda yakabva. NTP inowanzotumira nguva mu Coordinated Universal Time (zvichida inonzi Universal Time Coordinated kana UTC). Kuchinja kwemuvakidzani nguva kunogona kuitika pane imwe nguva yeva server kana kuti pane gadget yevatengi.

Kutumira kweNETP kwekutsvaga kune nguva inobva kune imwe nzvimbo inotendwa, somuenzaniso, nguva yehutungamiri. MuUnited States, National Institute of Standards neTechnology ine nguva dzese sevhavha dzatinogona kuwirirana nadzo. Pa tf.nist.gov/tf-cgi/servers.cgi, unogona kuwana sundown yenguva dzemaseva, nzvimbo dzavo uye nzvimbo dzePI kuratidza sevha yenguva. Paunenge watora nguva kune imwe nguva yenguva sevha uye chikwata chinowedzera, iwe unogona kushandisa ipapo sechinhu chenguva mukati mechiedza chekushandisa. Kugadzirisa uye kushandura (Cisco nevamwe) vanogona kutora nguva kubva kune imwe nguva yako sevhavha, uye mushure mezvo vanogona kuenda kune dzimwe nguva kubva kumagadheni akavapfuura. Zvizhinji zvekushanda zvirongwa zvichaita kuti NTP iwane Windows. Zvose zvakasiyana zveWindows kubvira Windows 2000 dzave neWindows Time Service (W32Time) kuenzanisa nguva uchishandisa NTP.

Mune hutano hwemazuva ano, nguva inogona kuenzaniswa mukati me millisecond kana milliseconds akawanda, asi sei? Izvozvo zvinoenderana! Inotenderera pane zvishandiswa zvinoshandiswa uye zvavanoda kwenguva. Zvichida kuva neawa "yakangwara" kunogona kukwana kuziva apo email yakagadzirwa uye yakawedzerwa. Nguva inodzika pahutano hwepamusoro huri chaihwo mukati mukati 10s yemamillisecond inogona kukwana. Izvo zvingashandiswa zvingava nguva yakawedzerwa nguva yakawedzerwa. Kubva pakuona kwekuona, kuva nechitima munguva mukati millisecond kunogona kubatsira kusarudza nyaya mukati memutambo. Funga nezvekukosha-based based applications. Kuva nezvinhu zvinopfuura hotspot yakangwara yekugadzirisa kambani kana zvimwe kugoverana kwebhajeti ndezvisingatenderwi. Chimwe chezvikumbiro zvikuru zvekushandisa NTP ndechekudzivirira magareta, uye sevatengi venguva dzose, ndinofara kuziva kuti chigadzirwa nemichina yekutevera mapurisa edu ari munhandare kunonyatsotarisa mukati memamisisecond. Izvi zvinobvumira vaya vanofambisa ndege kuti vave nechinangwa chakanaka chakanaka sezvimbo yendiza uye pedyo kune vamwe.

NTP iyi ndiyo protocol yakave yakapoteredza kwemakore anopfuura 30 uye ichiri kuzadza chido. Yakava yakajairika kuva nemaawa, uye isu tinonyatsovimba pane nguva. Ne NTP nhasi, tinogona kuwana zvakapfuura nguva yakangwara uye tinowana zvakajeka kumwero we millisecond. Pamusana pekuda kuti iwe unoda chimwe chinhu chakanyanyisa kupfuura icho, tarisa ku Precision Time Protocol (PTP) ... asi iyo ndeyeimwe nzvimbo.

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