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21 Feb 2017

Imiyalelo yesinyathelo ngesinyathelo ukufikelela kumadivayisi kwezinye iindawo kunye ne-IGP Route Redistribution

Ngoku kwaye kukho imfuneko yokuqhuba ngaphezulu komgaqo-nkqubo wokuhamba kunye neendawo ezingaphezu kweyodwa: izitolo ezithintekayo, ukuthutha ukuqala ngokuqala komgaqo-nkqubo omnye kwizinto ezilandelayo, iinkqubo ezixhomekeke kwiinkqubo ezizimeleyo zomgaqo-nkqubo, ukuthambekela kwezombusazwe okanye umntu, ukudala ngokuvisisana neenkqubo zokuvavanya, ukudibanisa kunye nokufumana.

Indlela yokufikelela kumadivaysi kwezinye iindawo kunye ne-IGP Route Redistribution

Ukubuyiswa kwakhona kwindlela eya kutshintshela idatha yokuhamba ngokuqala ngokulandelelana komgaqo-nkqubo emva koko kufikeleleke kwi-gadgets ehlala kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zokuhamba. Iprotocol ehambayo nganye iya kufakela enye yedatha yedatha kwiitheyibhile zokuhamba ngaphakathi kwendawo yayo, nangona kunokuba kunqwenela okanye kufuneka ukufezekisa izixhobo kwenye indawo. Ukwabiwa kwakhona kwenziwa kwimizuzu embalwa yeendlela zokuhamba phakathi kwendawo yokuhambisa indawo okanye iprotokholi kwindawo yokujolisa okanye kwiprotokholi.

Kukho iindlela ezintathu zokufumana ukufikelela ngokukhawuleza phakathi kweendawo:

  • Iindlela ezizenzekelayo ukusuka kutshintsho lomda. Unokudlula inkambo engapheliyo ukusuka kutshintshi echaphazela zonke izithuba zokuhamba (umgca wokutshintsha) kulawo ma routers akhethekileyo athathe inxaxheba kwindawo enye (ukutshintshwa kwangaphakathi). Oku kuya kubandakanya imizila engabonakaliyo ukusuka kuyo nayiphi na indawo abagijimi bangaphakathi abangenazi kwaye banalo i-routers zangaphakathi phambili ekutshintsheni umda, oya kuba netheyibhile yendlela yokuhamba kuyo kuba iya kuthatha inxaxheba kuzo zonke iinkalo zokuhamba. Le nkqubo isebenza kangcono ukuba kukho enye injongo yokudibanisa phakathi kweendawo zokuhamba.
  • Inkqubo yokubuyiswa komzila omnye, nge-default. Ubuncinane i-routers enye yamanqaku adlulisa inkambo engagqibekanga kwisithuba esinye, kodwa aphinde abuyele kwenye indawo. Ngokuqhelekileyo, uya kukhetha umgaqo-nkqubo wokuba uphinde uphinde uphinde ube nemigaqo-nkqubo eya kuthi ifumaneke i-gander kwiiprotokholi ezisezantsi. Indlela enye yokubuyisela kwakhona isetyenziselwa ukukhawuleza ukuya kwiindawo ezininzi ezinkulu, umzekelo, kwintlangano enkulu yezizwe. Iprotocol yomgaqo-nkqubo ingaba yi-BGP (iProducter Gateway Protocol) kunye neprotocol (edge) ye-IGP ingaba yiyiphi i-IGP (iProsoft Gateway Protocol), umzekelo, i-OSPF, i-EIGRP, i-RIP okanye i-IS-IS, okanye iimeko ezihlukahlukeneyo ze-IGP efanayo. imisebenzi ekhangelekayo kunye nokufumana kunye nokudibanisa, kuba "entsha" inxalenye ethile yentlangano ayifuni ukuba isebenzise indlela yokuhamba engabonakaliyo, okanye idinga ukutshintsha ixesha.
  • Indlela ebini okanye ukwabelana ngokubambisana kudlula ezimbalwa okanye ininzi yedatha yokuhamba yenkqubo enye kwenye. Oku kuyona ndlela inzima kakhulu, ingakumbi ukuba kukho injongo engaphezulu kweyodwa yokuqhagamshelana phakathi kweendawo zokuhamba. Kufuneka kusetyenziswe xa kukho iinjongo ezifanele zifikeleleke ngokuqala ngesithuba esinye emva koko. Yiba njengoko kunjalo, indlela ethile kufuneka idibaniswe ukubonisa indlela ukuhamba kufezekisa ezo njongo okanye ukuba umsebenzi kufuneka uthathelwe njani ngokubhekiselele kwizicwangciso zokukhusela. Imiba eqhelekileyo yokuhanjiswa kweendlela ezimbini ihamba ngeengcingo, ukuhamba kweendlela kunye nokuhamba ngendlela.
    • Indlela yokuhamba yindawo leyo indlela yokuthumela ayifani ngokufanayo nendlela yokufika. Imiba ingavela xa kukho iqhinga lokhuseleko elimiselwe ukuba umsebenzi uthunyelwa okanye ukuba kukho ilungiselelo lokutshisa umlilo. I-stack balancers nayo ingaphazanyiswa yindlela yokuhamba. Abaxhasi bamathanga, umthwalo ofanelekileyo kwizixhobo ezithile ngokubhekiselele kwidilesi eziqhelekileyo, lindele ukuba ukuthumela nokubuyisela imigudu kuya kuqikelelwa.
    • Ukuhamba ngokukhawuleza yindawo eyona nto ikhethwa ngayo kwitafile yokuthumela ayikho nayiphi na indlela efanelekileyo ngqo. Oku kwenzeka xa utshintsho lomda "luphulaphule" malunga neendlela ukusuka kwiprothotho yokuqala kwaye ngokuqhubekayo ngokusebenzisa enye inkqubo yokuhamba njengendlela yangaphandle. Ngethuba elihle lokuba ukwahlula okulawulwa kwenkqubo yekhosi yangaphandle kuxhomekeke ngakumbi kunokwenziwa komgaqo-nkqubo, umtshintshi uya kuxhomekeka kwinkambo yangaphandle kwikhosi yangaphandle. Indawo yokuhlala ilawula ukuhlukaniswa okusemthethweni kwemizila ekubhekiswa kuyo. Oku akuyona inkqubo ehamba phambili ngqo kwaye iyahluka ukusuka kwisigaba ukuya kwinqanaba, nangaphakathi kwintengiso yomthengisi wedwa.
    • Iingcingo zokuhamba, okanye i-loop yongenayo, inokwenzeka xa idatha yedatha ikwabiwe kwakhona kwiprotocol enye ngenjongo yoqhagamshelwano kwaye emva koko iphinda iphinde iphinde ibe ngumgaqo-nkqubo wokuqala ngenjongo yoqhagamshelwano. Ngomnqophiso othile wokugqibela wokulungisa umgca wokuhamba, kufuneka wenze ishaneli sokufakelwa. Isiteshi siya kukhanyela iindlela eziqala kwiprojekti ekujoliswe kuyo ukusuka ekukhutshweni kwakhona kwakhona kule protocol efanayo. Kufuneka uvelise iteksi ngexesha. Ngokomzekelo, ngaphandle kwithuba lokuba u-OSPF kunye neendawo ze-EIGRP ezinxulumene ubuncinci ubuncinci bezinto ezijoliswe kuzo, uza kwakhiwa ishaneli enye kuzo zonke iindlela ze-OSPF kwaye uzitshintshele ukwabiwa kwakhona kwi-EIGRP kwi-OSPF. Olunye umjelo luya kusetyenziswa kuzo zonke iindlela ze-EIGRP, ukuwahlula ngokubelwa kwakhona kwi-OSPF ibe yi-EIGRP. Oku kukwahlukana kufuneka kwenziwe kwimizila yonke yeendlela zokuhamba phakathi kwezi protocols ezimbini ezifanelekileyo. Unako ukulungelelanisa kwi-prefixes okanye ungasebenzisa iileyibhile, into endiyithandayo. Iibhile ziyakudityaniswa njengeyona nxalenye yendlela yokuphindaphinda kwakhona iindlela kwiprotocol ejoliswe kuyo, ngoko unokwenza uphendule iileyibhile ukuya kutshintshi. Kufuneka wenze isicwangciso sokuqala ukukhangela iilebula kwaye uyayiphika kunye nangethuba lokungabikho, ize ibhale imizila ukuqonda inkqubo yomthombo. Oku kufezekiswe ekuthwaleni, ngoko kuya kufuneka kwenziwe amapolisa amabini. Zonke iiprotokholi zokuhamba, kuquka i-RIPv2, zinokunyusa amalebula.

Sifanele sithathe i-gander kwi-IGP yokuphindaphinda i-Cisco gadgets. Xa ukusabalalisa kwakhona ukusuka kwiprotocol enye ibe yinye, kukho izinto ezimbalwa zokukhumbula:

  • Inkqubo yokubuyisela kwakhona ikhupha kwitafile yokuhamba, kungekhona i-database yolwazi. Ngethuba lokusasaza i-RIP kwi-OSPF, ngoko inkqubo ifuna loo mizila ebizwa ngokuba yi-RIP kwitheyibhile yokuhamba. Kukho ityala elilodwa elikhethekileyo: iindlela ezidibeneyo eziya kusebenza.
  • Kwii-routers zeCisco ze-IPv4, iindlela ezidibeneyo ziya kulungiswa kwakhona kwakhona. Oku kusebenza ubude bakho abuyiselanga kwakhona xa unxulumene naloo mgaqo-nkqubo ojoliswe kuwo, oya kuzisa ukuba iqela liyeke.
  • Kwimizila ye-Cisco ye-IPv6, inkqubo yokubuyisela kwakhona ayifaki ukwabelana kwakhona neendlela ezidibeneyo ezilandelwayo, ngaphandle kokuba uquka ukubandakanya inketho ehambelanayo nomgca wokubuyisela.

Ezinye ze-Cisco OS zidinga ilungiselelo elixhunyiwe kumyalelo wokubuyisela umzila weendlela eziza kudluliselwa ngokuqala ngeprotocol elandelayo ukuya kwilandelayo. Xa usasaza kwakhona kumgaqo-nkqubo, kufuneka uhlinzeke ngamatrikhi kwimizila ukwenzela ukuba basemgangathweni inxaxheba ngokubhekiselele kumgaqo-nkqubo wokujolisa. I-metrikhi yenkqubo enye ayifuni ukukhangela ukulungiswa komnye. Kukho imitha yamanzi emele ifakwe kwiindlela zangaphandle eziya kwiprojekti ejoliswe kuyo. Itafile kwi-Figure 1 ibonisa yonke imigaqo-nkqubo kunye neentlobo ezincinane.

imvelaphikwiRIPkwi-EIGRPkwi-OSPFkwi-IS-ISkwi-BGP (MED)
Ixhume1Isixhobo setrikhi20 (E2)00
static1Isixhobo setrikhi20 (E2)00
LALA KAKUHLEInfinite20 (E2)0IGP metric
EIGRPInfiniteEnye inkqubo yeetriki20 (E2)0IGP metric
OSPFInfiniteInfinite0IGP metric
KUYEInfiniteInfinite20 (E2)IGP metric
BGPInfiniteInfinite1 (E2)0

Umzobo 1: Utshintsho lweeNkqubo

Ngethuba lokuthi imbewu yeetrikhi ayiguquli, ikhosi ayisebenziswanga. Udinga ukubonelela ngemitha yeetrikri ngelixa usasaza kwakhona umgaqo-protocol kwisigxina kumgca wokubuyisela kwakhona okanye ngomyalelo we-metric ongagqibekanga phantsi komgaqo-nkqubo wokubambisana. Imbewu yametriki ilungiselelo lolo mgaqo-nkqubo: ihlahlela i-RIP, iindleko ze-OSPF kunye ne-IS-IS, kunye neetriki ze-EIGRP (amandla okudlulisa idatha, ukulibaziseka, ikhwalithi engaqinisekanga, umthwalo kunye ne-MTU).

Omnye ucingisise-ukuba umthombo u-BGP, ngoko kuphela iindlela ze-BGP zangaphandle ziya kubelwa kwakhona kwi-IGP. Le yindlela yokwenza isenzo esilungileyo. Kwimeko apho kufuneka uhlawule kwakhona iindlela ze-BGP zangaphakathi, ulungiselele phantsi kwenkqubo ye-BGP (kungekhona umgaqo-nkqubo wokujolisa) bgp kwakhona umyalelo wangaphakathi.

Kule miqolo, xa uqhuba ngaphezulu komnye umgaqo-protocol kwaye ufuna ukuba ufikelele ngokupheleleyo okanye ungapheli, uya kufuneka uhlawule kwakhona phakathi kwezi protocols. Kukho izinto ezimbalwa zokuqwalasela kwaye uzilungiselele ngaphambi kokuba uqale ukuhlela. Ukubuyisela kwakhona kunokubaluleka ngokukhethekileyo (iisethi enye yezivumelwano, enye injongo yokuqhagamshelana) kwaye ingabonakali kakhulu.

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