I-CISCO CCNP UKUTHUTHUKISA & UKUHLELA

I-CCNP Ukuhamba Nokuhamba Nokuqeqeshwa Ukuqeqeshwa Nokuqinisekiswa

Incazelo

Izilaleli & Izidingo Zokuqala

Ukusebenzisa ukuhamba kwe-Cisco IP (300-101)

Ukuqalisa ukusebenza kwe-Cisco IP Switched Networks (300-115)

Ukuxazulula izinkinga nokugcina i-Cisco IP Networks v2

Certification

Isingeniso

I-Cisco Certified Network Professional noma i-CCNP ukuqeqesha nokushintshwa iqinisekisa amandla okusebenzisa, ukuhlela, ukuqinisekisa nokuhlinzeka ukwesekwa kwamanethiwekhi wamabhizinisi amaningi futhi wendawo futhi isebenza ngokubambisana nezochwepheshe ekuvikelekeni okuthuthukisiwe, izixazululo ezingenazintambo, zezwi nevidiyo. Ngemva kokuqeda izifundo ze-CCNP, abafundi bazokwazi ukusebenza njengabaxhumanisi benethiwekhi, onjiniyela bokusekela, ochwepheshe benethiwekhi noma ochwepheshe benethiwekhi.

Izinhloso

Ukwenziwa kwe-IP Routing (ROUTE) v2

  • Hlela, wakhe futhi uqinisekise ukuqaliswa kwezimakethe ezivikelekile ze-WAN ne-LAN izixazululo zokusetshenziswa ngokusetshenziswa kwezinqubo ezihlukahlukene zokuhamba

Ukwenziwa kwe-IP Switched Networks (SWITCH) v2

  • Hlela, wakha futhi uqinisekise ukuqaliswa kwezixazululo eziningi zokushintsha amabhizinisi ngokusebenzisa i-CEA kulolu qeqesho lweCCNP

Ukuxazulula izinkinga nokugcina i-IP Networks (TSHOOT) v2

  • Hlela futhi wenze isondlo esivamile kumanethiwekhi amaningi asebenzayo futhi aguquliwe
  • Sebenzisa imikhuba esekelwe kwezobuchwepheshe kanye nendlela ehlelekile yokwenza ukuxazululwa kwenethiwekhi ngokusebenzisa lolu hlelo lwe-CCNP

netetsamelilwati

I-CCNP isitifikedi ifanele kulabo abazongena okungenani unyaka owodwa wokuhlangenwe nakho kwenethiwekhi futhi balungele ukuthuthukisa amakhono abo.

Okudingekayo

Abafundi kumele babe ne-CCNA R & S Certification.

  1. Izimiso zenethiwekhi
    • Thola imininingwane ye-Cisco Express Ukudlulisela phambili
      • FIB
      • Ithebula le-Adjacence
    • Chaza izinselele zenethiwekhi jikelele
      • Unicast
      • Amaphakethe angaphandle kwe-oda
      • Ukujikeleza okungajwayelekile
    • Chaza imisebenzi ye-IP
      • I-ICMP ayitholakali futhi ibuyiswa
      • I-IPv4 ne-IPv6 ukwehlukaniswa
      • I-TTL
    • Chaza imisebenzi ye-TCP
      • I-IPv4 ne-IPv6 (P) MTU
      • I-MSS
      • I-Latency
      • I-Windowing
      • Umkhiqizo wokubambezeleka komkhawulokudonsa
      • Ukuvumelanisa kwezwe jikelele
    • Chaza imisebenzi ye-UDP
      • Ukuzilambisa
      • I-Latency
    • Yazi izinguquko ezihlongozwayo kwinethiwekhi
      • Izinguquko kumigomo yemigomo yeprotocol
      • Thuthela izingxenye zenethiwekhi ku-IPv6
      • Ukuhamba ngokulandelana kwemithetho ye-protocol
  2. I-Layer 2 Technologies
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-PPP
      • Ukuqinisekiswa (PAP, CHAP)
      • I-PPPoE (ingxenye yekhasimende kuphela)
    • Chaza ukulayishwa kwe-Frame
      • Operations
      • Iphuzu-kuya-iphuzu
      • I-Multipoint
  3. I-Layer 3 Technologies
    • Thola, ulungiselele, futhi uqinisekise i-IPv4 yokukhuluma nokuthunyelwa kwe-subnetting
      • Izinhlobo zekheli (Unicast, ukusakaza, i-multicast, ne-VLSM)
      • Arp
      • Ukudluliswa kwe-DHCP nesiphakeli
      • Umsebenzi we-protocol we-DHCP
    • Thola ukuthi i-IPv6 ikhuluma ne-subnetting
      • Unicast
      • Eui-64
      • I-ND, i-RS / RA
      • I-Autoconfig (i-SLAAC)
      • Ukudluliswa kwe-DHCP nesiphakeli
      • Umsebenzi we-protocol we-DHCP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukuhlelwa kwe-static
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise imizila ezenzakalelayo
    • Hlola izinhlobo zendlela yokulandelela
      • I-vector yebanga
      • Hlanganisa isimo
      • I-Path vector
    • Chaza ibanga lokuphatha
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga zangaphakathi
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-VRF lite
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukuhlunga nganoma yimuphi umgomo
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukwabiwa kabusha phakathi kwanoma yimaphi ama-protocol noma imizila yokuhambisa
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ubunikazi nokuzimela nge-protocol ngayinye
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise imizila esekelwe kunqubomgomo
    • Thola ukuhlelwa okungahambi kahle
    • Chaza amabalazwe we-ROUTE
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izindlela zokuvimbela i-loop
      • Ukumaka umzila nokuhlunga
      • I-split-horizon
      • Umuthi wobuthi
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-RIPv2
    • Chaza i-RIPng
    • Chaza izinhlobo zepakethe ze-EIGRP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ubuhlobo bomakhelwane be-EIGRP nokuqinisekiswa
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ama-stubs e-EIGRP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukulinganisa umthwalo we-EIGRP
      • Izindleko ezilinganayo
      • Izindleko ezingalingani
    • Chaza futhi ulungiselele amamethrikhi e-EIGRP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-EIGRP ye-IPv6
    • Chaza izinhlobo zepakethe ze-OSPF
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ubuhlobo bomakhelwane be-OSPF nokuqinisekiswa
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izinhlobo zenethiwekhi, izinhlobo zendawo, nezinhlobo ze-router
      • Iphuzu-kuya-iphuzu, i-multipoint, yokusakaza, ngaphandle kwe-broadcast
      • Izinhlobo ze-LSA, uhlobo lwendawo: i-backbone, evamile, i-transit, i-stub, i-NSSA, i-stub ngokuphelele
      • I-router yangaphakathi, i-backbone router, i-ABR, i-ASBR
      • Isixhumanisi sangempela
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise okukhethwa kukho kwe-OSPF
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukusebenza kwe-OSPF
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-OSPF ye-IPv6
    • Chaza, lungisa, futhi uqinisekise ubudlelwane bontanga BGP nokuqinisekiswa
      • Izingane zontanga
      • Isebenza, ayihambisani
      • Izizwe kanye nezikhathi
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-eBGP (i-IPv4 ne-IPv6 imindeni yamakheli)
      • eBGP
      • I-4-byte njenge-AS
      • I-Private AS
    • Chaza izimfanelo ze-BGP nokukhethwa kokuhamba kahle
  4. VPN Technologies
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise GRE
    • Chaza i-DMVPN (ihabhu elilodwa)
    • Chaza Ukuxhumana Kwama-Easy Virtual (EVN)
  5. Ukuphepha kwezingqalasizinda
    • Chaza i-IOS AAA usebenzisa i-database yendawo
    • Chaza ukuphepha kwedivayisi usebenzisa i-IOS AAA nge-TACACS + ne-RADIUS
      • I-AAA ne-TACACS + ne-RADIUS
      • Ukugunyazwa kwelungelo lendawo
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukulawula kokufinyelela kwedivayisi
      • Imigqa (VTY, AUX, console)
      • Ukuvikelwa kwezindiza zokuphatha
      • Ukubethela iphasiwedi
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izici zokuphepha komzila
      • Izinhlu zokulawula ukufinyelela kwe-IPv4 (standard, extended, time-based)
      • Isihlungi se-IPV6
      • Ukuhamba phambili kwe-Unicast yokubuyela emuva
  6. Izinsizakalo Zengqalasizinda
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukuphathwa kwedivayisi
      • Ikhonsoli ne-VTY
      • I-Telnet, i-HTTP, i-HTTPS, i-SSH, i-SCP
      • (T) i-FTP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-SNMP
      • v2
      • v3
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukungena ngemvume
      • Ukungena ngemvume kwendawo, i-syslog, izibububukezi, izidumbu zemiqathango
      • Ama-timestamps
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-Network Time Protocol (NTP)
      • I-NTP master, iklayenti, i-version 3, inguqulo ye-4
      • Ukuqinisekiswa kwe-NTP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-IPv4 ne-IPv6 DHCP
      • I-DHCP iklayenti, iseva ye-IOS DHCP, ukudluliselwa kwe-DHCP
      • Izinketho ze-DHCP (chaza)
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-IPv4 Ikheli leNethiwekhi Yekheli (NAT)
      • I-NAT Static, i-NAT enamandla, i-PAT
    • Chaza i-IPv6 NAT
      • I-NAT64
      • I-NPTv6
    • Chaza izakhiwo ze-SLA
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-IP SLA
      • I-ICMP
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izinto zokulandelela
      • Izinto zokulandelela
      • Ukulandelela izinkampani ezahlukene (isibonelo, interfaces, imiphumela ye-IPSLA)
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-Cisco NetFlow
      • I-NetFlow v5, i-v9
      • Ukubuyiswa kwendawo
      • Thumela (ukucushwa kuphela)
  1. I-Layer 2 Technologies
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukuphathwa komshini
      • Izifanekiso ze-HR
      • Ukuphatha ithebula lekheli le-MAC
      • I-Troubleshoot Khubaza ukuphumula ukukhubaza
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izivumelwano ze-Layer 2
      • I-CDP, i-LLDP
      • UDLD
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-VLAN
      • Finyelela emachwebeni
      • Idatha ye-VLAN
      • Okujwayelekile, i-VLAN enwetshiwe, i-VLAN yezwi
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ukuthutha
      • VTPV1, VTPv2, VTPV3, VTP izihlahla
      • dot1Q
      • I-VLAN yasekhaya
      • Ukusika izihlahla
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise i-EtherChannels
      • I-LACP, i-PAP, incwadi
      • I-2 yekhasi, I-Layer 3
      • Layisha ukulinganisa
      • I-EtherChannel i-misconfiguration guard
    • Lungiselela uphinde uqinisekise umuthi wokupaka
      • I-PVST +, i-RPVST +, i-MST
      • Shintsha kuqala, ukubeka phambili kwe-port, izindleko zendlela, ama-STP amakhalithi
      • I-PortFast, i-BPDUguard, i-BPDU-Filter
      • I-Loopguard ne-Rootguard
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise ezinye ubuchwepheshe bokushintshwa kwe-LAN
      • I-SPAN, i-RSPAN
    • Chaza i-chassis virtualization ne-aggregation technologies
      • I-Stackwise
  2. Ukuphepha kwezingqalasizinda
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izici zokuphepha zenkinobho
      • I-DHCP ihlaziya
      • IP Source Guard
      • Ukuhlolwa kwe-ARP ye-Dynamic
      • Ukuphepha kwePort
      • I-VLAN yangasese
      • Ukulawula isiphepho
    • Chaza ukuphepha kwedivayisi usebenzisa iCisco IOS AAA nge-TACACS + ne-RADIUS
      • I-AAA ne-TACACS + ne-RADIUS
      • Ukugunyazwa kwelungelo lendawo
  3. Izinsizakalo Zengqalasizinda
    • Lungiselela futhi uqinisekise izivumelwano zokuqala zokubuyiswa kwe-hop
      • HSRP
      • I-VRRP
      • GLBP
  1. Izimiso zenethiwekhi
    • Sebenzisa amathuluzi wokuxazulula izinkinga ze-Cisco IOS
      • Ukuguqulwa, ukuguqulwa okunemibandela
      • Umzila we-Ping nolandelela ngezinketho ezinwetshiwe
    • Sebenzisa izindlela zokuxazulula izinkinga
      • Ukuqaphela imbangela yezimpikiswano zokuxhumana (hlaziya izimpawu, zikhomba futhi
        chaza imbangela yezimpande)
      • Yakha futhi usebenzise izixazululo ezivumelekile
      • Qinisekisa futhi uqaphe isinqumo
  2. I-Layer 2 Technologies
    • Inkinga yokushintshwa kwe-Troubleshoot
      • Izifanekiso ze-HR
      • Ukuphatha ithebula lekheli le-MAC
      • I-Troubleshoot Khubaza ukuphumula ukukhubaza
    • I-Troubleshoot Layer I-2 protocol
      • I-CDP, i-LLDP
      • UDLD
    • I-Troubleshoot i-VLAN
      • Finyelela emachwebeni
      • Idatha ye-VLAN
      • Okujwayelekile, i-VLAN enwetshiwe, i-VLAN yezwi
    • Inkinga yokuxazulula izinkinga
      • VTPV1, VTPv2, VTPV3, VTP izihlahla
      • dot1Q
      • I-VLAN yasekhaya
      • Ukusika izihlahla
    • Izinkinga ze-EtherChannels
      • I-LACP, i-PAP, incwadi
      • I-2 yekhasi, I-Layer 3
      • Layisha ukulinganisa
      • I-EtherChannel i-misconfiguration guard
    • Isixazululo sokuxazulula izinkinga
      • I-PVST +, i-RPVST +, i-MST
      • Shintsha kuqala, ukubeka phambili kwe-port, izindleko zendlela, ama-STP amakhalithi
      • I-PortFast, i-BPDUguard, i-BPDU-Filter
      • Loopguard, Rootguard
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga zobuchwepheshe bokushintshwa kwe-LAN
      • I-SPAN, i-RSPAN
    • I-Troubleshoot virtualization ye-chassis nobuchwepheshe be-aggregation
      • I-Stackwise
  3. I-Layer 3 Technologies
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga ze-IPv4 nokukhuluma nge-subnetting
      • Izinhlobo zekheli (Unicast, ukusakaza, i-multicast, ne-VLSM)
      • Arp
      • Ukudluliswa kwe-DHCP nesiphakeli
      • Umsebenzi we-protocol we-DHCP
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga ze-IPv6 nokukhuluma nge-subnetting
      • Unicast
      • Eui-64
      • I-ND, i-RS / RA
      • I-Autoconfig (i-SLAAC)
      • Ukudluliswa kwe-DHCP nesiphakeli
      • Umsebenzi we-protocol we-DHCP
    • Ukuxazulula izixazululo ezihleliwe
    • Ukumisa okuzenzakalelayo kokuxazulula izinkinga
    • Inkinga yokuphatha inkinga
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga zangaphakathi
    • I-Troubleshoot VRF lite
    • Ukuhlunga kwezinkinga nge-protocol
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga phakathi kwanoma yimaphi ama-protocol noma imizila yokuhambisa
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga zokuphatha nokuzenzekelayo nge-protocol yokuhamba
    • Inkinga yokusekela inqubomgomo enkingeni
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga ngokuzenzekelayo
    • Izinkinga zokuvimbela izinkinga zokuxazulula izinkinga
      • Ukumaka umzila, ukuhlunga
      • I-split-horizon
      • Umuthi wobuthi
    • I-Toubleshoot RIPv2
    • Ukuxazulula ubudlelwane bomakhelwane be-EIGRP nokuqinisekiswa
    • Inkinga yokuxazulula inkinga ye-Troubleshoot
      • I-RD, i-FD, i-FC, i-olandelayo, i-successor
    • Ukuxazulula izinkinga ze-EIGPR
      • Iqhubekile esebenzayo
    • Izinkinga ze-EIGRP ze-Troubleshoot
    • Ukuxazulula umthwalo we-EIGRP wokuxazulula inkinga
      • Izindleko ezilinganayo
      • Izindleko ezingalingani
    • Izinkinga ze-EIGRP ze-Troubleshoot
    • Inkinga ye-EIGRP ye-IPv6
    • Ubuhlobo bomakhelwane be-OSPF be-Troubleshoot nokuqinisekiswa
    • Izinkinga zenethiwekhi zokuxazulula izinkinga, izinhlobo zendawo, nezinhlobo ze-router
      • Iphuzu-kuya-iphuzu, i-multipoint, yokusakaza, ngaphandle kwe-broadcast
      • Izinhlobo ze-LSA, uhlobo lwendawo: i-backbone, evamile, i-transit, i-stub, i-NSSA, i-stub ngokuphelele
      • I-router yangaphakathi, i-backbone router, i-ABR, i-ASBR
      • Isixhumanisi sangempela
    • Inkinga ye-Troubleshoot ye-OSPF
    • Umsebenzi we-Troubleshoot OSPF
    • I-Troubleshoot i-OSPF ye-IPv6
    • Ubuhlobo bobuhlobo be-Troubleshoot BGP nokuqinisekiswa
      • Izingane zontanga
      • Isebenza, ayihambisani
      • Izizwe kanye nezikhathi
    • I-Troubleshoot eBGP
      • eBGP
      • I-4-byte njenge-AS
      • I-Private AS
  4. VPN Technologies
    • Izixazululo ze-GRE
  5. Ukuphepha kwezingqalasizinda
    • I-Troubleshoot i-IOS AAA isebenzisa i-database yendawo
    • Ukuxazulula ukulawula kokufinyelela kwedivayisi
      • Imigqa (VTY, AUX, console)
      • Ukuvikelwa kwezindiza zokuphatha
      • Ukubethela iphasiwedi
  6. Ukuxazulula izici zokuphepha kwe-router
    • Izinhlu zokulawula ukufinyelela kwe-IPv4 (standard, extended, time-based)
    • Isihlungi se-IPV6
    • Ukuhamba phambili kwe-Unicast yokubuyela emuva
  7. Izinsizakalo Zengqalasizinda
    • Ukuxazulula ukuphathwa kwedivayisi
      • Ikhonsoli ne-VTY
      • I-Telnet, i-HTTP, i-HTTPS, i-SSH, i-SCP
      • (T) i-FTP
    • I-Troubleshoot SNMP
      • v2
      • v3
    • Izixazululo zokungena ngemvume
      • Ukungena ngemvume kwendawo, i-syslog, izibububukezi, izidumbu zemiqathango
      • Ama-timestamps
    • Isixazululo se-Network Time Protocol (NTP)
      • I-NTP master, iklayenti, i-version 3, inguqulo ye-4
      • Ukuqinisekiswa kwe-NTP
    • I-Troubleshoot IPv4 ne-IPv6 DHCP
      • I-DHCP iklayenti, iseva ye-IOS DHCP, ukudluliselwa kwe-DHCP
      • Izinketho ze-DHCP (chaza)
    • Ukuxazulula inkinga ye-IPv4 Address Address Translation (NAT)
      • I-NAT Static, i-Dynamic NAT, i-PAT
    • Isakhiwo se-SLA Troubleshoot
    • Izinkinga zokulandelela izinkinga
      • Izinto zokulandelela
      • Ukulandelela izinkampani ezahlukene (isibonelo, interfaces, imiphumela ye-IPSLA)

Ukusebenzisa ukuhamba kwe-Cisco IP (300-101)

Ukusebenzisa ukuhamba kwe-Cisco IP (i-ROUTE 300-101) kuhlolwa kwe-120 emaminithi afanelekayo nemibuzo ye-50-60 yezincwadi zokuqinisekisa ze-Cisco CCNP ne-CCDP. Ukuhlolwa kwe-ROUTE 300-101 kuqinisekisa ulwazi nolwazi lwamakhono abakhethiweyo abaphumelele. Bayiqinisekisiwe ekusebenziseni i-IP ekukhulumeni phambili kanye nokuhlelwa ekusetshenzisweni komzila we-Cisco onokuphepha futhi ovikelekile oxhunywe kuma-LAN, WANs, ne-IPv6.

Ukuhlolwa kuhlanganisa nokuhlelwa kwezixazululo zokuphepha eziphephile ukusekela amahhovisi egatsha kanye nezisebenzi zaselula.

Izihloko ezilandelayo ziyiziqondiso ezijwayelekile zokuqukethwe okungenzeka zifakwe ekuhlolweni.Nokho, ezinye izihloko ezihlobene zingase zivele nanoma iyiphi inguqulo ethile yokuhlolwa. Ukuze ubonise kangcono okuqukethwe kokuhlolwa nokucaca, le mihlahlandlela elandelayo ingashintsha nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ngaphandle kwesaziso.

Ukuqalisa ukusebenza kwe-Cisco IP Switched Networks (300-115)

Ukusebenzisa i-Cisco IP Switched Networks (SWITCH 300-115) yi-120 imaminithi efanelekayo yokuhlolwa nemibuzo ye-45-55 yezingqinamba ze-Cisco CCNP ne-CCDP. Isivivinyo se-SWITCH 300-115 siqinisekisa ulwazi olushintshiwe namakhono abakhethiweyo abaphumelele. Baqinisekisiwe ekuhleleni, ekulungiseleleni, nasekuqinisekiseni ukusetjenziswa kwezixazululo ezishintshayo zokushintsha amabhizinisi asebenzisa i-Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture.

Ukuhlolwa kwe-SWITCH kuhlanganisa nokuhlanganiswa okuphephile kwama-VLAN nama-WLAN.

Izihloko ezilandelayo ziyiziqondiso ezijwayelekile zokuqukethwe okungenzeka zifakwe ekuhlolweni.Nokho, ezinye izihloko ezihlobene zingase zivele nanoma iyiphi inguqulo ethile yokuhlolwa. Ukuze ubonise kangcono okuqukethwe kokuhlolwa nokucaca, le mihlahlandlela elandelayo ingashintsha nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ngaphandle kwesaziso.

Ukuxazulula izinkinga nokulondoloza i-Cisco IP Networks v2 (300-135)

Ukuxazulula izinkinga nokulondoloza i-Cisco IP Networks i-V2 (TSHOOT 300-135) ukuhlolwa okufanelekayo kwamaminithi angu-120 nemibuzo ye-15-25 ye-Cisco CCNP isitifiketi. Ukuhlolwa kwe-TSHOOT 300-135 kuqinisekisa ukuthi umuntu ophumelele ukhetho unolwazi namakhono adingekayo ukuze: Hlela futhi wenze ukugcinwa okujwayelekile kumanethiwekhi azinkampani ezixubile nokushintshashintsha Sebenzisa imikhuba yezobuchwepheshe kanye nendlela ehlelekile ye-ITIL yokwenza ukuxazulula inethiwekhi

Izihloko ezilandelayo ziyiziqondiso ezijwayelekile zokuqukethwe okungenzeka zifakwe ekuhlolweni.Nokho, ezinye izihloko ezihlobene zingase zivele nanoma iyiphi inguqulo ethile yokuhlolwa. Ukuze ubonise kangcono okuqukethwe kokuhlolwa nokucaca, le mihlahlandlela elandelayo ingashintsha nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ngaphandle kwesaziso.


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