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21 -Feb 2017

Isiqondiso ngesinyathelo ngesinyathelo sokufinyelela amadivaysi kwezinye izizinda nge-IGP Route Redistribution

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Ngokuphindaphindiwe kunesidingo sokugijima okungaphezu kweyodwa yenqubo yokulandelela futhi unendawo engaphezu kweyodwa: ezitolo eziningi, ukuthuthwa kabusha ngokuqala nge-protocol eyodwa bese kulandela izinkinga ezilandelayo, ezithinta izinkambiso ze-solitary protocol, ukuthambekela kwezombangazwe noma komuntu siqu, ukudala ngokuhambisana nezinhlelo zokuhlola, ukuhlangana, nokuthengwa.

Indlela Yokufinyelela Amadivaysi Omunye Izizinda Ne-IGP Route Redistribution

Ukubuyiswa kabusha kuyindlela yokudlulisa idatha yokuhamba ngokuqala nge-protocol eyodwa ye-routing bese ungena elandelayo ukuze ube nokukwazi ukuphinde ukwazi ukubhekana namagajethi ahlala ezindaweni ezahlukene zokuhamba. I-protocol ngayinye yokuhambisa izonikeza enye idatha enomusa kumatafula okuhlela ngaphakathi kwesikhala sayo, noma kunjalo kungaba khona ukulangazelela noma isidingo sokufeza amagajethi kwenye indawo. Ukubuyiswa kabusha kwenziwa okungenani kumkhawulo owodwa wemingcele phakathi kwendawo yokuhambisa umthombo noma iphrothotholi ibe yindawo yokukhomba noma i-protocol.

Kunezinketho ezintathu zokuthola ukufinyeleleka okugcwele phakathi kwezikhala:

  • Imizila engafanele ukusuka ekushintsheni komkhawulo. Ungadlulisa inkambo engafanele kusuka kumshini othinta zonke izikhala zokuhambisa (umkhawulo wokushintsha) kulawo ma routers okukhethekile okuthatha ingxenye ngaphakathi kwendawo eyodwa (switch yangaphakathi). Lokho kuzofaka imizila engacacile kusuka kunoma iyiphi indawo i-routers zangaphakathi engazi lutho futhi ikwazi ukuhamba phambili ngaphakathi komshini wokushintsha umkhawulo, okuzoba netafula eliphelele lokuhambisa ngoba kuzoba yingxenye kuzo zonke izindawo zokuhamba. Le nqubo isebenza kangcono uma kunenjongo eyodwa yokuxhumana phakathi kwezindawo zokuhamba.
  • Ukubuyiswa komgwaqo oyedwa, okuzenzakalelayo. Okungenani imingcele eyodwa yamaphesenti idlulisa inkambo ezenzakalelayo ibe isikhala esisodwa, okwamanje isabelwa kabusha kwenye indawo. Ngokuvamile, ungakhetha inqubo ephakathi yokubuyisela kabusha futhi isetshenziselwa izivumelwano ezithola ukuthi inkambo ezenzakalelayo izoyithathwa njengama-protocols. Ukubuyiswa komunye-ndlela kusetshenziselwa ukufinyeleleka ekuzileni kwemigwaqo emikhulu, isibonelo, enhlanganweni enkulu yezizwe. Iprotocol ye-protocol ingaba yi-BGP (i-Border Gateway Protocol) kanye ne-protocol (edge) engaphelele ingaba yiluphi uhlelo lwe-IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol, isibonelo, i-OSPF, i-EIGRP, i-RIP noma i-IS-IS, noma ngisho nokuvela okuhlukahlukene kwe-IGP efanayo. imisebenzi ekhangayo ngokuthengwa nokuhlanganiswa, ngoba "okusha" ingxenye ethile yenhlangano akudingeki ukuba isebenzise ukulandelela okungaqondakali okuvela kuyo yonke indawo, noma idinga ukushintsha isikhathi.
  • Ukuhlelwa kabusha kokubili noma ukwabelana kudlula ezimbalwa noma iningi lemininingwane yokuhambisa enye yenqubo elandelanayo ibe yinye. Lokhu kuyinkimbinkimbi kunazo zonke, ikakhulu uma kunezinhloso ezingaphezu kweyodwa zokuxhumana phakathi kwezindawo zokuhamba. Kufanele isetshenziswe uma kunemigomo okufanele ifinyeleleke ngokuqala ngesikhala esisodwa bese ungena olandelayo. Yiba noma kunjalo, indlela ethile kumele ixhunywe ukukhombisa indlela ukunyakaza kufezekisa ngayo leyo migomo noma ukuthi umsebenzi kufanele usebenze kanjani ngokulandela amasu okuphepha. Ukukhathazeka okuvamile ngokusabalalisa ngendlela emibili kuyindlela yokuhamba, ukuhamba ngendlela ejwayelekile kanye nokuhlelwa komzila.
    • Ukujikeleza okungajwayelekile yindawo lapho ukuthumela khona akufani neze nendlela yokufika. Izinkinga zingabonakala uma kukhona isu lokuphepha elihlelwe ukuthi umsebenzi uthunyelwa kanjani noma uma kukhona ukuhlelwa kwezigubhu zomlilo. Abaxhasi be-stack nabo bangaphazanyiswa nokuhlelwa kwe-asymmetric. Abaxhasi be-stack, okuyiwona umthwalo ofanele kumagetsi athile ngokubhekene nekheli elivamile, kulindeleke ukuthi izindlela zokuthumela nezokubuyisela zibikezeleke.
    • Ukuhamba ngokuhamba phambili yindawo lapho inqubo ethandwa kakhulu etafuleni lokuthumela akuyona indlela eqondayo kakhulu. Lokhu kwenzeka uma ukushintshwa komkhawulo "kulalela" mayelana nemizila kusukela ekuthomeni kweprotocol futhi ngokuqhubekayo ngokusebenzisa enye protocol njengendlela yangaphandle. Uma kungenzeka ukuthi ukuhlukana okulawulwayo kwendlela yokuziphatha yangaphandle kuyathembeka kakhulu kune-protocol yokuqala, umshini uzoxhomeka ekwenzeni kwangaphandle ngenkambo yendawo. Isixazululo ukulawula ukuhlukaniswa okugunyazayo kwemizila okukhulunywe kuyo. Lena akuyona inqubo eqondile kakhulu yokuhamba futhi ihluke kusukela esiteji kuya esiteji, ngisho nangaphakathi komnikelo womkhiqizo wodwa.
    • Izithutha zokuhamba, noma i-loop yokufaka, ingenzeka uma idatha yokuhlelwa kabusha isakazwe kabusha ku-protocol eyodwa ngenhloso eyodwa yokuxhumana futhi ngemva kwalokho iphinde iphinde iphinde ibe yinkambiso yenqubo yokuqala ngenye inhloso yokuxhumana. Ngomgomo wokuphela othize wokuxazulula umzila wokuhamba, udinga ukwenza isiteshi sokufaka. Isiteshi singaphika imigwaqo eqala kumgomo wokuqondiswa kusukela ekukhushulwa futhi kuphinde kulandelwe leyo protocol. Udinga ukwakha isiteshi ngenkathi. Isibonelo, uma kungenzeka ukuthi unezindawo ze-OSPF nezindawo ze-EIGRP ezihlotshaniswa okungenani ezimbili ezigxile kuzo, uzokwakha isiteshi esisodwa kuzo zonke izindlela ze-OSPF bese uzihambisa ekubuyiselweni okuvela ku-EIGRP ku-OSPF. Esinye isiteshi sizosetshenziselwa yonke imizila ye-EIGRP, ukuyihlunga ngokubuyiswa kabusha kusuka ku-OSPF ku-EIGRP. Lokhu kuhlukanisa kufanele kwenziwe kuwo wonke amakhilomitha omkhawulo phakathi kwezivumelwano ezimbili okufanele zikwazi ukusebenza. Ungakwazi ukuxhumanisa ngezibikezelo noma ungasebenzisa amalebuli, okukuthandwa kwami. Amalebuli angenziwa njengendlela yendlela yokuphinde abuyele kabusha imizila ibe yiphrothothikhi eqondisiwe, bese usesha amalebula kusiteshi. Udinga ukwenza amasu okuqala ukusesha amalebuli futhi uwaphika futhi uma kungenzeka ukuthi angekho, bese ubhala imizila ukuze uqaphele umthombo wenkambiso. Lokhu kufezekile ekuthwaleni, ngakho-ke amapolisi amabili ayodinga ukwenziwa. Zonke izivumelwano zomzila, kuhlanganise no-RIPv2, zingaqinisa amalebula.

Kufanele sithathe i-gander ku-IGP ukwabiwa kabusha kwemikhakha ku-Cisco gadgets. Uma uphinde usakaze ukusuka kwinye protocol ukuya kwenye, kunezinto ezimbalwa okufanele uzikhumbule:

  • Inqubo yokubuyisela kabusha idonsela etafuleni lokuhlela, hhayi emininingwaneni yezinhlelo. Ngethuba elilodwa lokuthi uzobuyisela kabusha i-RIP ku-OSPF, bese inqubo isesha lezo zindlela ezibizwa ngokuthi yi-RIP kuthebula lokuhlela. Kukhona icala elilodwa elikhethekile: imizila ehambisanayo ukuthi i-protocol isebenza.
  • Ezimweni zokuhamba ze-Cisco ze-IPv4, imizila ehambisanayo izophinde isakaze kabusha ngokwemvelo. Lokhu kuvumelekile ubude obungasabi kabusha uma kuhlotshaniswa kulokho okulandelwayo, okuzoletha isici ukuma.
  • Ku-roulette ye-Cisco ye-IPv6, inqubo yokubuyisela kabusha ayibuyisi kabusha leyo mizila ehambisanayo ukuthi le protocol isebenza, ngaphandle uma ufaka inketho ehambisanayo nomugqa wokubuyisela.

Ezinye ze-Cisco OS zidinga ilungiselelo elixhunywe kumyalo wokubuyisela kabusha wemigwaqo okufanele idluliselwe kuqala nge-protocol eyodwa bese ungena olandelayo. Uma uphinde usabelwe kabusha, kufanele udlulise amamethrikhi emigwaqweni ukuze abe nenhlangano efanele mayelana nenqubo yokukhomba. I-metric yeprotocol ethile ayifuni ukusesha ukuchitshiyelwa komunye. Kukhona imitha yembewu okumelwe ifakwe emigwaqweni yangaphandle eya kwinqubo elandelwayo. Itafula ku-Figure 1 ibonisa yonke inqubo yokulandelana enezinhlobo ezimbalwa.

Umthomboku-RIPku-EIGRPku-OSPFzibe yi-IS-ISku-BGP (MED)
Ixhunyiwe1Isixhumanisi se-metricI-20 (E2)00
Static1Isixhumanisi se-metricI-20 (E2)00
RIPInfiniteI-20 (E2)0I-IGP metric
I-EIGRPInfiniteEnye inqubo ye-metricI-20 (E2)0I-IGP metric
OSPFInfiniteInfinite0I-IGP metric
I-IS-ISInfiniteInfiniteI-20 (E2)I-IGP metric
BGPInfiniteInfiniteI-1 (E2)0

Umdwebo we-1: Izinguquko zohlelo

Uma kungenzeka ukuthi imbewu ye-metric ayinakuphela, inkambo ayisebenziseki. Udinga ukuhlinzeka ngemetrikhi yembewu ngenkathi usabelana ngokuphindaphindiwe kwiphrothokholi yomthombo ekuhlosweni noma kulayini wokubuyisela noma ngokusebenzisa umyalo we-metric ozenzakalelayo ngaphansi kweprotocol yokuqondisa imigomo. I-metric imbewu iyilungiselelo le-protocol eqondisiwe: ihamba nge-RIP, izindleko ze-OSPF ne-IS-IS, kanye ne-metric ye-EIGRP (amandla okudlulisa idatha, ukubambezeleka, ikhwalithi engaqiniseki, ukulayisha kanye ne-MTU).

Omunye ucabange lokugcina-uma umthombo u-BGP, khona-ke nje imigwaqo yangaphandle ye-BGP izobekwa kabusha kwi-IGP. Lona uhlelo lokusebenza olungasebenzi oluhlelekile. Uma kwenzeka ukuthi ubuyekeze kabusha imizila yangaphakathi ye-BGP, bese uhlela ngaphansi kwenqubo ye-BGP (hhayi umgomo we-protocol) bgp wokubuyisela kabusha umyalo wangaphakathi.

Phakathi kwale migqa, uma kwenzeka uqhuba ngaphezulu kwesinye isimiso somthetho futhi udinga ukufinyeleleka okuphelele noma okungaphelele, kuzodingeka ukwazi ukuphinde usakaze phakathi kwalezo zinhlelo. Kunezinto ezimbalwa okufanele uzicabange futhi uzilungiselele ngaphambi kokuba uqale ukuhlela. Ukubuyiswa kabusha kungaba okuyisisekelo (isethi esisodwa sezinhlelo, inhloso eyodwa yokuxhumana) futhi kungabi nakakhulu.

shiya impendulo

 
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